MyanmarAsia Zawgyi Travel, DMC
THE REPUBLIC OF THE UNION OF MYANMAR
MYANMAR, formerly known as BURMA, is the largest country in South East Asia. Population of just over fifty-three million is a culturally rich mix of more than a hundred ethnic groups and dialects. Strategically situated between the world’s two most populous nations, China and India. Myanmar has a distinctive ancient culture, sharing traditions with both neighbors.
In the 19th century, Burmese rulers sought to maintain their traditional influence in the western areas of Assam, Manipur and Arakan. Pressing them, however, was the British East India Company, which was expanding its interests eastwards over the same territory. Over the next sixty years, diplomacy, raids, treaties and compromises, known collectively as the Anglo-Burmese Wars, continued until Britain proclaimed control over most of Burma. With the fall of Mandalay, all of Burma came under British rule, being annexed on 1 January 1886.
On 1 April 1937, Burma became a separately administered colony of Britain, and Ba Maw became the first Prime Minister and Premier of Burma. Ba Maw was an outspoken advocate for Burmese self-rule, and he opposed the participation of Britain, and by extension Burma, in World War II. He resigned from the Legislative Assembly and was arrested for sedition. In 1940, before Japan formally entered the war, Aung San formed the Burma Independence Army in Japan.
As a major battleground, Burma was devastated during World War II by the Japanese invasion. Within months after they entered the war, Japanese troops had advanced on Rangoon, and the British administration had collapsed. A Burmese Executive Administration headed by Ba Maw was established by the Japanese in August 1942. Wingate‘s British Chindits were formed into long-range penetration groups trained to operate deep behind Japanese lines. A similar American unit, Merrill’s Marauders, followed the Chindits into the Burmese jungle in 1943.
Beginning in late 1944, allied troops launched a series of offensives that led to the end of Japanese rule in July 1945. Although many Burmese fought initially for the Japanese as part of the Burma Independence Army, many Burmese, mostly from the ethnic minorities, served in the British Burma Army. The Burma National Army and the Arakan National Army fought with the Japanese from 1942 to 1944 but switched allegiance to the Allied side in 1945.
British Government Period
Union Jack Flag (1885-1937)
Following British forces’ conquest of Mandalay Palace, King Thibaw, the last ruler of the Konboung Empire, was exiled to Ratnagiri, India. Soon after, the British claimed that Myanmar was part of British India.
British India Period
British Raj Flag (1886-1937)
Myanmar as a pert of British Indai the flag we used this British Raj Flag from (1886-1937)
British Burma Period
British Burma Flag (1937-1942)
In terms of separation from India. This is the first step towards independence. Myanmar’s resistance forces have called for the country’s separation from India. In 1937, the British government declared Myanmar to be a British Burma with its own Governor General and legislative body.
Japanese Occupation Period
Japanese Military Administration Flag (1942-1943)
During WWII, Myanmar was occupied by Japan. During the Japanese Military Administration, Myanmar flew the Japanese flag.
State of Burma
State of Burma Flag (1943-1945)
In 1943, the Japanese government granted Myanmar independence as the State of Burma. Dr. Ba Maw was appointed chancellor of the state of Burma, but only as a puppet of the Japanese Emperor.
British Burma Flag
British Burma Flag (1945-1948)
Beginning in late 1944, allied troops launched a series of offensives that led to the end of Japanese rule in July 1945. The battles were intense with much of Burma laid waste by the fighting. Following World War II, Aung San negotiated the Panglong Agreement with ethnic leaders that guaranteed the independence of Myanmar as a unified state.
The Parliament Period
Union of Burma Flag (1948-1974)
Myanmar gained independence as a sovereign state six months after Bogyoke Aung San and his cabinet members were assassinated in the Secretariat in Yangon, thanks to the strength and efforts of the leaders. Following independence, Myanmar became the Union of Burma and the first flag was hoisted for the first time at 4:25 AM on 4 January 1948 when Burma gained independence. The flag consisted of a red field defaced with a blue canton. The blue canton was charged with one large white star surrounded by five smaller stars between its rays. The big white star in the canton and the red field honour the Resistance Flag and indicate the anti-fascist struggle. The four small white stars between the rays of the big white star symbolize the unity of various ethnic races of the republican union founded as a result of the resistance. The red represents bravery, courage, and preservation. The blue canton means the nature of the sky, having deep meanings, the fresh and clear mind, and the light emitted in the night sky. The usage of stars is for the nature of the stars: never stopping, never cancelling the chosen path, always moving forward, being a guide for travellers, and existing since the beginning of the world, while the colour white represents purity, righteousness and steadiness.
The Socialist Period
The Socialtst Republic of the Union of Burma Flag (1974-2010)
The Second Flag adopted on 3 January 1974 upon the coming into force of the Constitution of the Socialist Republic of the Union of Burma has a similar background colours as the previous flag but with different charge in the canton. The colour representations are also different: white is for purity and virtue, red for bravery and decisiveness, blue for peacefulness and steadiness. It depicts 14 equal-sized white stars encircling a pinion and ear of paddy in a blue canton against a red field. The paddy represents farmers while the pinion represents workers; the combination symbolizes the farmers and workers as the basic social classes for building the State. The 14 equal-sized white stars represent the equality and unity of the 14 members (7 states and 7 divisions) of the Union.
The Pyihtaungzu Hluttaw Period
The Republic of the Union of Myanmar Flag (2010-Current)
The third flag was hoisted for the first time at 3:00 p.m. local time on 21 October 2010. The current flag is a horizontal tricolour flag of yellow, green, and red charged with a five-pointed white star in the centre of the field. The background is a yellow, green, and red tricolor, meant to honour the tricolours used during the independence struggle. The yellow represents unity, conformity, wisdom, happiness, and unity of all national races amicably. The green symbolises fertility, conformity, fairness, and being a peaceful, pleasant, and green nation. The red represents bravery and decisiveness. The white star stands for purity, honesty, fullness of compassion, and power.
Myanmar people are by nature friendly and polite, and are traditionally easygoing. The majority of the population are devout Buddhists, and there are pagodas and meditation centers all over the country. And others Christians, Islamic, Hindus, and others religions are freely devout as well.
|The Republic of the Union of Myanmar
|Pyidaunzu Thanmada Myanmar Nainngandaw
|Unitary parliamentary constitutional republic
Upper house – House of Nationalities
Lower house – House of Representatives
|H.E U Myint Swe (Acting)
|H.E Henry Van Thio
|Naypyidaw (Since 2005)
|Largest city and former capital
|Also official script
|676,578 km2 (261,228 sq mi)
|3.06% of water
|56.2 million (2023)
|76/km2 (196.8/sq mi) density
|Bamar 68%, Shan 9%, Karen 7%, Rakhine 4%, Mon 2%, Others 10%
|Theravada Buddhism 87.9%, Christianity 6.2%, Islam 4.3%, Others 1.6%
Kyat (K) (MMK)
(US $1.00 is roughly equivalent to 3,320 kyats)
|Kyat denominations: 1, 5, 10, 20, 50, 100, 200, 500, 1000, 5000, 10000, 20000 paper money
|Myanmar uses two calendars: Gregorian and Buddhist
|The lunar Buddhist calendar is 638 years behind Gregorian Calendar.
|Market economy is nascent stage
|Business hours: 9:00-17:00, Monday to Friday ( half day for Saturday in some private office)
|220 Volts, 50 Hz
|Range of plug types used. Adaptors needed for US appliances.
|23 December 894
|The first Kingdom was founded as a collision of Pyu city states (Hanlin, Beikthano, & Sriksetra which are UNESCO World Heritage)
|16 October 1510
|29 February 1752
|ANNEXATION BY BRITISH
|1 January 1886
4 January 1948
In 1947 Bogyoke Aung San (Father of Aung San Suu Kyi) and 8 colleagues (the Nine Martyrs) were assassinated during the cabinet meeting for independence.
After the independence Myanmar become the Democratic country with President Sao Shwe Thike and Primier U Nu.
|2 March 1962
|The first military junta with General Nay Win.
|RESTORATION OF PRESIDENCY
|30 March 2010
|President Thein Sein was become the first president after under 48 years of military rules.
Myanmar is situated on the west of the Southeast Asian peninsula, bordering India on the northwest and China on the northeast. Bangladesh lies to the west and Thailand and Laos to the east. The country has a 1,770-mile coastline that faces west and borders the Bay of Bangal and the Andaman Sea. Myanmar is roughly the size of the state of Texas, and larger than any European country, excluding Russia, with an area of 261,228 square miles (678,500 sq. km). It is also largest country in mainland Southeast Asia. The shape resembles that of kite, with a long tail drifting down the peninsula toward Malaysia.
Myanmar’s most prominent geographical feature is the 1,350 mile Irrawaddy River, flowing north to south. Other important rivers nourishing this rice-growing land are the Salween and the Chindwin. The rivers serve as Myanmar RTERIES, WHILE THE MOUNTAIN RANGES OF East Yoma, Bagao Yoma and West Yoma stand like sentries on guard duty. Myanmar’s highest peak, Hkakabo Razi in Kachin State, reaches 19,295 feet. Snow-capped mountain ranges mark Myanmar’s northernmost frontier with China.
The Shan plateau has its famous natural attraction, Inle Lake, situated 2,900 feet above the sea level. A freshwater lake, where the inhabitants lives in stilted homes surrounded by floating island, Inle Lake in nearly fourteen miles long and more than six miles across at its widest point. A unique feature of the lake is the way the people who live on its shores, the Inthas, use their legs to paddle their boats.
Myanmar stretches from the sparsely populated mountain north, where it border China, to the tropical south, and there are huge variations in climate. In the extreme north winters can be bitterly cold, but the inhabited parts of the country never experience extreme cold.
There are three seasons a year. Most of the country lies within the tropics and enjoys a hot season from March to mid-May, with temperatures reaching 35C. The rainy season begins from the third week of May, when monsoon rains envelop the country. The rains are heaviest during July and August, and taper off in October. The cool months are from November to February. While temperatures at this time dip below the freezing point in the north, For Yangon and other big cities in the central Myanmar it is pleasantly warm, around 68-77C.
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